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ID
  
 
Healthy Home Gardening
 
Apple
Rosaceae
Malus domestica


Thunder
Thunder
Flower Petal # 5
Main Color    
Color 2    
Type Categories Useful Parts

Tree



Rosaceae Family

Malus Genus

Location

Origin & Range: Native to Central Asia. Apples current ranges is China, United States, Turkey, France, Italy (world’s largest producers), and anywhere else desired

Physical Description
Tree - Small to medium sized tree with spreading canopy, to 30 ft in wild, generally 6-15 ft in cultivation. Tree size and shape is heavily dependent on rootstock and training system (see below). Leaves elliptical with serrate margins, dark green with light pubescence on underside

Flower - Petals are white when open, but have red-pink undersides when opening, hence the "pink" bloom stage. The ovary is inferior, embedded in the floral cup or hypanthium, containing 5 locules, usually 2 ovules per locule. The inflorescence is a cyme of 4-6 flowers, with the center flower opening first; the central flower is often called the "King bloom", and has the potential to produce a larger fruit than other flowers. Flowers are produced terminally from mixed buds (containing both leaves and flowers) on spurs, or to a lesser extent on long shoots. Spurs form on 2-yr-old and older wood, and generally grow only a fraction of an inch each year

Fruit - A special fruit type is given to apple and related fruits the pome. The bulk of the fleshy

edible portion derives from the hypanthium or floral cup, not the ovary. Seeds are relatively

small and black, and mildly poisonous. Fruiting begins 3-5 years after budding, although a few

fruit may be produced in the 2nd year.




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Rosaceae
Rosales
Rosales
Order of Roses
NOX Clad
Nitrogen Bean Clad
Oxid-Faba
Fabidae
Bean-Like Class
Eurosids
Real Rose Class
Rosids
Rosids
Rose-Like Class
Core Eudicots
Core Eudicots
Main, Real, Two First-Leaves (Dicots)
Eudicots
Eudicots
Real, Two First-Leaves (Dicots)
Mesangiospermae
Mesangiospermae
Half Capsule Seed Division
Magnoliophyta
Magnoliophyta
Magnolia Division
Spermatophytes
Spermatophytes
Seed Plants
Euphyllophytina
Real Land Plants
Polysporangiates
Multiple Spore Sub-Kingdom
Stomatophytes
Stomatophytes
Air Pores Sub-Kingdom
Embryophytes
Embryophytes
Multicellular Land Plants
Streptobionta
Streptobionta
Multicellular Plants
Plantae
Plantae
Plants
Eukaryota
Eukaryota
Cells with a Nucleus


General Information

The center of diversity of the genus Malus is the eastern Turkey. The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be cultivated, and its fruits have been improved through selection over thousands of years. Alexander the Great is credited with finding dwarfed apples in Asia Minor in 300 BCE; those he brought back to Greece might have been the progenitors of dwarfing rootstocks. Apples were brought to North America with colonists in the 1600s, and the first apple orchard on the North American continent was said to be near Boston in 1625. From New England origins, apples moved west with pioneers, John Chapman (alias Johnny Appleseed) and missionaries during the 1700's and 1800's Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia, as well as in Argentina and in the United States since the arrival of Europeans. In the 1900s, irrigation projects in Washington state began and allowed the development of the multi-billion dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is the leading species

It lower's blood cholesterol up to 15%, improved bowel function, and reduced risk of stroke, prostate cancer, type II diabetes mellitus and asthma. Two recent British studies indicated that eating apples could improve lung health. The disease-fighting profile of apples provides a multitude of health benefits, including potential decreased risk of cancer and heart disease. Several recent studies suggest apples may provide a "whole-body" health benefit. A 2001 Mayo Clinic study indicated that quercetin, a flavonoid abundant in apples, helps prevent the growth of prostate cancer cells.

They are prescribed for intestinal infections, constipation, mental and physical fatigue, hypertension, rheumatism, gout, anemia, bronchitis, urine retention, hepatic disorders, gastric and kidney malfunctions, hoarseness, coughing, and excess cholesterol in the blood

Apples can be canned, juiced, and optionally fermented to produce apple juice, cider, ciderkin, vinegar, and pectin. Distilled apple cider produces the spirits applejack, and Calvados. Apple wine can also be made. They make a popular lunchbox fruit as well.

Apples are an important ingredient in many winter desserts, for example apple pie, apple crunble, apple crisp, and apple cake. They are often eaten baked or stewed , and they can also be dried and eaten or re-constituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid) for later use. Puréed apples are generally known as apple sauce. Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly. They are also used (cooked) in meat dishes

In the UK, a toffee apple is a traditional confection made by coating an apple in hot toffee and allowing it to cool. Similar treats in the US are candy apples (coated in a hard shell of crystallised sugar syrup), and caramel apples, coated with cooled caramel.

Apples are eaten with honey at the Jewish New Year of Rosh Hashanah to symbolize a sweet new year

Nutritional Value:

Apples, with skin (edible parts) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 50 kcal 220 kJ

Carbohydrates 13.81 g

Sugars 10.39 g

Dietary fiber 2.4 g

Fat 0.17 g

Protein 0.26 g

Thiamin (Vit. B1) 0.017 mg 1%, Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.026 mg 2%,

Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.091 mg 1%, Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.061 mg 1%,

Vitamin B6 0.041 mg 3%, Folate (Vit. B9) 3 µg 1%, Vitamin C

4.6 mg 8%

Calcium 6 mg 1%, Iron 0.12 mg 1%, Magnesium 5 mg 1%,

Phosphorus 11 mg 2%

Potassium 107 mg 2%, Zinc 0.04 mg 0%

Due to the presence of hydrogen cyanide in the seeds, the seeds are toxic. The symptoms of poisoning are: Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Coma, Congestion oral mucous membranes, Decreased respiratory rate, Diarrhea, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Fecal incontinence, Forelimb spasms, Head, face, neck spasms, Hindlimb spasms, Hyperesthesia, Increased respiratory rate, Miosis, Mydriasis, Seizures or syncope, Sudden death, Urinary incontinence





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Comment: Apple, Malus domestica

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