dioecious herbaceousperennial. It has widely spreading rhizomes and stolons, and these, like the roots, are bright yellow. The leaves have a strongly serrated margin, a cordate base and an acuminate tip with a terminal leaf tooth longer than adjacent laterals. It bears small greenish or brownish 4-merous flowers in dense axillary inflorescences.
Nettle needs moist soil. The stinging hairs of most nettle species contain formic acid, serotonin and histamine. The leaves and stems are very hairy with non-stinging hairs and also bear many stinging hairs (trichomes), whose tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a needle that will inject several chemicals: acetylcholine, histamine, 5-HT or serotonin, and possibly formic acid. This mixture of chemical compounds cause a sting or paresthesia from which the species derives its common name, as well as the colloquial names burn nettle, burn weed, burn hazel. This sting can last from only a few minutes to as long as a week. In Chinia it is known as "Cat-Bite". Extracts can be used to treat arthritis, anemia, hay fever, kidney problems, and pain, dandruff. Other names include Tall Nettle, Slender Nettle, California Nettle, Jaggy Nettle, Burning Weed, Fire Weed and Bull Nettle. treatment for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia Testosterone.
certain extracts of the nettle are used by bodybuilders in an effort to increase free testosterone by occupying sex-hormone binding globulin similar to spinach when cooked, and is rich in vitamins A, C, D, iron, potassium, manganese, and calcium. Cooking or drying completely neutralizes the toxic components found in this plant. Freezing the plant, then bashing it can also neutralizes the stingers. After Stinging Nettle enters its flowering and seed setting stages the leaves develop gritty particles called "cystoliths", which can irritate the urinary tract. Nettles are sometimes used in cheese making, for example in the production of Yarg and as a flavouring in varieties of Gouda. Unusually for a leafy green vegetable stinging nettle also contains high levels of protein; 40% Cooking, crushing or chopping disables the stinging hairs. Stinging nettle leaves are high in nutrients, and the leaves can be mixed with other ingredients to create a soup rich in calcium and iron.