it has spread invasively to Arizona, California, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Texas and Washington. "Because it is so drought tolerant, African rue can displace the native saltbushes and grasses growing in the salt-desert shrub lands of the Western U.S.
Harmal has been used as an entheogen in the Middle East, and in modern Western culture, it is often used as an analogue of Banisteriopsis caapi to create an ad hoc Ayahuasca, the South American mixture of phytoindoles including DMT with β-carbolines. However, Harmal has distinct aspects from caapi and a unique entheogenic signature.
Smoke from the seeds kills algae, bacteria, intestinal parasites and molds. Peganum harmala has "antibacterial activity," including antibacterial activity against drug-resistant bacteria.
Reduces fertility in males.
Peganum harmala has antioxidant and antimutagenic properties.
harmala alkaloids. These alkaloids are of interest for their use in Amazonian shamanism, where they are derived from other plants. The harmala alkaloid harmine which was once known as Telepathine and Banisterine is a naturally occurring beta-carboline alkaloid that is structurally related to harmalin.
Harmala alkaloids are also found in the Banisteriopsis caapi vine, the key plant ingredient in the sacramental beverage Ayahuasca, in concentrations that range between 0.31-8.43% for harmine, 0.03-0.83% for harmaline and 0.05-2.94% for tetrahydroharmine. Other psychoactive plants are often added to Ayahuasca to achieve visionary states of consciousness; for example leaves from Psychotria viridis, which is a source of dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The harmala alkaloids serve to potentiate these brewed compounds by preventing their breakdown in the digestive tract. The harmala alkaloids are not especially psychoactive on their own, even at high dosages, when vomiting and diarrhea become the main effect.
Harmala alkaloids are also found in many other plants, such as tobacco and passion flower, but at only low concentrations.
Telepathine was originally thought to be the active chemical constituent of Banisteriopsis caapi, a key plant ingredient in the preparation of Ayahuasca; a sacramental beverage from the Amazon. This isolated chemical was so named because of the reported effects of Ayahuasca among the indigenous users, including: collective contact with and or visions of jaguars, snakes, and jeweled birds, and ancestral spirits; the ability to see future events; and as the name suggests, telepathic communication among tribal members. It was assumed to be a newly discovered chemical at the time, however, it was soon realized that Telepathine was already more widely known as "harmine" from its previous discovery in Peganum harmala (Syrian Rue).
Syrian Rue, Harmal
Syrian Rue, Harmal - October 16, 2009