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Coffee Bean
Rubiaceae
Coffea arabica


Thunder
Thunder
Type Categories Useful Parts

Shrub



Rubiaceae Family

Coffea Genus

Location

Native to The plateaus of central Ethiopia. Most arabica coffee beans are grown either in

Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil. Beans from different countries or regions usually have distinctive characteristics such as flavor, aroma, body, and acidity.



Physical Description
The coffee plant is a woody perennial evergreen dicotyledon that belongs to the Rubiaceae family. Because it grows to a relatively large height, it is more accurately described as a coffee tree. It has a main vertical trunk (orthotropic) and primary, secondary, and tertiary horizontal branches (plagiotropic).

Evergreen, glabrous shrub or small tree, up to 5 m tall when unpruned; leaves opposite, dark green, glossy, elliptical, acuminate-tipped, short-petioled, 5-20 cm long, 1.5-7.5 cm broad, usually 10-15 cm long and 6 cm broad; flowers white, fragrant, in axillary clusters, opening simultaneously 8-12 days after wetting; corolla tubular, 1 cm long, 5-lobed; calyx small, cup-shaped; fruit a drupe, about 1.5 cm long, oval-elliptic, green when immature, ripening yellow and then crimson, black upon drying, 7-9 months to maturity; seeds usually 2, ellipsoidal, 8.5-12.5 mm long, inner surface deeply grooved, consisting mainly of green corneous endosperm and small embryo; polyembryony recorded. 2,500 dried seed/kg. (Reed, 1976).




Compare Species
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Rubiaceae
Gentianales
Gentianales
Euasterids I
Euasterids I
Real Stars Group One
Asteridae
Asteridae
Class of Stars (Daisies)
Core Eudicots
Core Eudicots
Main, Real, Two First-Leaves (Dicots)
Eudicots
Eudicots
Real, Two First-Leaves (Dicots)
Mesangiospermae
Mesangiospermae
Half Capsule Seed Division
Magnoliophyta
Magnoliophyta
Magnolia Division
Spermatophytes
Spermatophytes
Seed Plants
Euphyllophytina
Real Land Plants
Polysporangiates
Multiple Spore Sub-Kingdom
Stomatophytes
Stomatophytes
Air Pores Sub-Kingdom
Embryophytes
Embryophytes
Multicellular Land Plants
Streptobionta
Streptobionta
Multicellular Plants
Plantae
Plantae
Plants
Eukaryota
Eukaryota
Cells with a Nucleus


General Information

Medicinal Uses: Coffee consumption has been linked to breast size reduction and taking regular hits of caffeine reduces the risk of breast cancer. Coffee appears to reduce the risk of alzheimerís disease, Parkinsonís disease, heart disease, diabete mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver, and gout. It increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases. Some health effects of coffee are due to its caffeine content, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components. For example, the antioxidants in coffee prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.

Type 2 Diabetes - Of all the studies conducted on the benefits of coffee, the most consistent is the lowered risk of acquiring type 2 diabetes or ďadult-onsetĒ diabetes among coffee drinkers. Studies show that the more coffee is consumed the lower the risk. Men who drank 6 cups or more a day cut their diabetes risk in half while women who drank the same amount of coffee, cut their risk to 30%. It seems men benefit more than women.

Food Uses: Darker roasts are generally smoother, because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. Lighter roasts have more caffeine, resulting in a slight bitterness, and a stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times. A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing. Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement, though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans. Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee, but all involve either soaking beans in hot water or steaming them, then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils. Decaffeination is often done by processing companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry

Other Notes: According to legend, human cultivation of coffee began after goats in Ethiopia were seen mounting each other after eating the leaves and fruits of the coffee tree. In reality, human consumption of coffee fruits probably began long before humans took up pastoralism. In Ethiopia there are still some locales where people drink a tisane made from the leaves of the coffee tree.

The first written record of coffee made from roasted coffee beans comes from Arabian scholars who wrote that it was useful in prolonging their working hours. The Arab innovation of making a brew from roasted beans, spread first among the Egyptians and Turks and later on found its way around the world

Antioxidant - coffee is a good source of antioxidants. Green coffee beans contain about 1,000 antioxidants and they are increased during brewing. The roasting process also creates it own set of compounds that are beneficial to health and are unique only to coffee. Coffee contains more antioxidants than cocoa, red wine and 4 times more than green tea. Initial findings show that even 1 to 2 cups of coffee a day has beneficial effects and it seems both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee increases the body's antioxidant levels.

Parkinsonís Disease - independent studies have shown that drinking coffee daily reduces the risk of Parkinsonís Disease by as much as 80%. It also appears that the more the consumption, the lower the risk. Aside from reducing the risk of Parkinsonís disease, coffee has positive functional effect on daily activities like concentration, alertness, body endurance, and increased male fertility. This is attributed to caffeine's effect on brain receptors which enhances energy uptake.

There are also recent studies that show that drinking coffee does not raise the risk of heart disease - the old belief now seem to be untrue. Research continues on the benefits of coffee, other benefits include: reduction of asthma attacks, cuts the risk of liver cirrhosis, reduces the risk of colon cancer, reduces headaches, prevents tooth cavities and even offsets the damage of heavy alcohol intake and smoking.

Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. At least 1,000 years ago, traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern day Yemen), where Muslim monks began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. At first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies.

Coffee became the substitute beverage in place of wine in spiritual practices where wine was forbidden. Coffee drinking was briefly prohibited to Muslims as haraam in the early years of the 16th century, but this was quickly overturned.

Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretic substance, and its production and consumption were briefly repressed. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV. Coffee, regarded as a Muslim drink, was prohibited to Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889; it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to its banning in England, among other places.

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Warning: Research indicates that women who drank more than one cup of coffee a day reduced their likelihood of conceiving by 50%, and men who drank two to three cups of coffee a day had an increased incidence of abnormally formed sperm. Having five cups a day appears to make sperm sluggish as well.





Coffee Bean
Koehlers Medicinal-Plants 1887<br><br>[Image in Public Domain]<br><br>

Comment: Coffee Bean, Coffea arabica

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