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Garden Strawberry
Rosaceae
Fragaria × ananassa


Thunder
Thunder
Type Categories Useful Parts

Herb



Rosaceae Family

Fragaria Genus
Other Names for this Plant

Common Strawberry


Location

The whole of the Northern Hemisphere, exclusive of the tropics

Physical Description
Foliage: Evergreen to semi-evergreen; alternate on tightly compressed rosettes or at the end of stoloniferous runners; trifoliate; 4O to 6Oacross; leaflets 2O to 4O long; broadly ovate to obovate; tips broadly acute to rounded, except for the serrations; bases are cuneate and margins dentateserrate; most cultivars are dark glossy green and glaucous above and lighter and duller beneath with adpressed whitish hairy pubescence; petioles 4O to 8O long, dark to medium green in color and hairy.

Flower: Although variable in size, ¾O to 1¼O in diameter, the five-petaled flowers are borne mostly below the foliage in small five to fifteen flower cymose clusters borne on leafless scapes; petals are mostly white, rarely pink, and pretty but typically hidden from view by the foliage; thus the flowers provide minimal ornamental effect unless viewed from the side or beneath as in hanging baskets or strawberry pots.
Fruit: The fruit is the commercial strawberry; botanically it is an aggregate of exposed tiny tan to brown achenes partially embedded on the surface of a swollen red receptacle; the ½O to 2O long fruits are initially hard and greenish white, then green, and eventually red, soft, and fragrant when ripe; fruit are not only edible, but delicious; you will have to fight the critters to enjoy these fruits as they are a favorite of about every form of wildlife known to inhabit our region.
Stem / Bark: Stems — green; pubescent; stoutish rosettes or longer, thinner, stiffer stoloniferous runners; Buds — foliose; green; pubescent; Bark — not applicable.



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Rosaceae
Rosales
Rosales
Order of Roses
NOX Clad
Nitrogen Bean Clad
Oxid-Faba
Fabidae
Bean-Like Class
Eurosids
Real Rose Class
Rosids
Rosids
Rose-Like Class
Core Eudicots
Core Eudicots
Main, Real, Two First-Leaves (Dicots)
Eudicots
Eudicots
Real, Two First-Leaves (Dicots)
Mesangiospermae
Mesangiospermae
Half Capsule Seed Division
Magnoliophyta
Magnoliophyta
Magnolia Division
Spermatophytes
Spermatophytes
Seed Plants
Euphyllophytina
Real Land Plants
Polysporangiates
Multiple Spore Sub-Kingdom
Stomatophytes
Stomatophytes
Air Pores Sub-Kingdom
Embryophytes
Embryophytes
Multicellular Land Plants
Streptobionta
Streptobionta
Multicellular Plants
Plantae
Plantae
Plants
Eukaryota
Eukaryota
Cells with a Nucleus


General Information

The garden strawberry was first bred in Brittany, France, in 1740 via a cross of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America , which was noted for its flavor, and Fragaria chiloensis from Chile and Argentina brought by Amédée-François Frézier, which was noted for its large size

1629 is the date assigned to the introduction of the Scarlet Strawberry from Virginia, and the earliest mention of the Strawberry in English writings is in a Saxon plant list of the tenth century, and in 1265 the ‘Straberie’ is mentioned in the household roll of the Countess of Leicester. ‘Strabery ripe,’ together with ‘Gode Peascode’ and ‘Cherrys in the ryse,’ were some of the London cries mentioned by Lydgate in the fifteenth century.

Medicinal Uses: Laxative, diuretic, astringent. Both the leaves and the fruit were in early pharmacopoeias, though the leaves were mostly used. The fruit contains malic and citric acids, a volatile matter, sugar, mucilage, pectin, woody fiber and water. It is easily digested and is not subject to acetous fermentation in the stomach. In feverish conditions the fruit is invaluable, and is also recommended for stone. Strawberry vitamins are of value in sprue. Culpepper declares the plant to be ’singularly good for the healing of many ills,’ but Linnaeus was the first to discover and prove the efficacy of the berries as a cure for rheumatic gout.

The root is astringent and used in diarrhea. The leaves have the same property, and a tea made from them checks dysentery. The stalks only entered into the composition of the once-famous Antioch drink and vulnerary. Some recipes order that the drink should be prepared between the feasts of St. Philip and St. James and the Nativity of St. John the Baptist.

Food Uses: In addition to being consumed fresh, strawberries can be frozen, made into preserves as well as dried and used in such things as cereal bars. Strawberries are a popular addition to dairy products, as in strawberry flavored ice cream, milkshakes, smoothies, and yogurts. Strawberry pie is also popular.

Other Notes: The Strawberry is a useful dentifrice and cosmetic. The fresh fruit removes discoloration of the teeth if the juice is allowed to remain on for about five minutes and the teeth are then cleansed with warm water, to which a pinch of bicarbonate of soda has been added. A cut Strawberry rubbed over the face immediately after washing will whiten the skin and remove slight sunburn. For a badly sunburned face it is recommended to rub the juice well into the skin, to leave it on for half an hour, and then wash off with warm water to which a few drops of simple tincture of benzoin have been added; no soap should be used.

Cultivation: The runners of established plants should be allowed to root in the soil adjoining the plants, which should, therefore, be kept light and fine, or layered into small pots as for forcing. As soon as a few leaves are produced on each the secondary runners should be stopped. When the plants have become well rooted they should at once be planted out. They do best in a rather strong loam, and should be kept tolerably moist. The ground should be trenched 50-100 cm deep, and supplied with plenty of manure, a good proportion of which should lie just below the roots, 25-30 cm from the surface. The plants may be put in on an average about 50-60 cm apart.

The plantation should be renewed every second or third year, or less frequently if kept free of runners, if the old leaves are cut away after the fruit has been gathered, and if a good top-dressing of rotten dung or leaf mold is applied. A top-dressing of loam is beneficial if applied before the plants begin to grow in spring, but after that period they should not be disturbed during the summer either at root or at top

A mulching of straw manure put between the rows in spring serves to keep the ground moist and the fruit clean, as well as to afford nourishment to the plants. Unless required, the runners are cut off early, in order to promote the swelling of the fruit. The plants are watered during dry weather after the fruit is set, and occasionally until it begins to color. As soon as the fruit season is over, the runners are again removed, and the ground hoed and raked.

Propagation: For purposes of commercial production, plants are propagated from runners and generally distributed as either bare root plants or plugs

Companion Planting: Traditional companion planting pair borage with strawberries. Also plant dill, coriander, fennel, and Queen Anne’s Lace. Love-in-a-mist looks wondeful planted in the center of a wide row of strawberries.

They do well in the presence of bush beans and spinach, Strawberries will benefit if a few plants of borage, also a good attractant for honeybees, are grown near the bed. Lettuce is good used as a border. Pyrethrum, planted alongside, serves well as a pest preventative. A spruce hedge also is protective. White helolebore will control sawfly, and marigolds are useful too, if you suspect the presence of nematodes.

Pine needles alone or mixed with straw make a final mulch, said to make the berries taste more like the wild variety. In some areas farmer plant strawberries as an intercrop in peach, apple, fig, orange or other fruit tree orchards.




Garden Strawberry




Garden Strawberry
Flowers



Garden Strawberry
Plant



Garden Strawberry
Redoute, Pierre Joseph, 1759-1840, From the 1833 book entitled Most Beautiful Flowers

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